GEOS170C: Homework #8 “Hominid Evolution and Migration”

GEOS170C: Homework #8
“Hominid Evolution and Migration” 
Page 1
Problem Set 1: Hominid Fossil Data
The data below includes four kinds of information:
Fossil taxon and its age range in millions of years ago
Location in degrees east or west longitude and north or south latitude, and the name of
site where the fossil was found
Australopithecines (4.4-1.4 mya) Fossils #1–10
(1) 38°E, 1°S Chemeron (5) 36°E, 5°S Laetoli (9) 27°E, 27°S
Swartkrans
(2) 27°E, 27°S Sterkfontein (6) 36°E, 7°N Omo (10) 38°E, 4°N Koobi-
Fora
(3) 43°E, 8° N Hadar (7) 26°E, 26°S Kromdrai
(4) 37°E, 4°S Olduvai (8) 28°E, 25°S Magapansgat
Homo erectus (1.9 -.3 mya) Fossils #11–22
(11) 112°E, 38°N
Zhoukoudian
(15) 38°E, 4°N Koobi-Fora (19) 27°E, 27°S Sterkfontein
(12) 112°E, 8°S Modjokerto (16) 6°W, 35°N Sale (20) 43°E, 8°Nhadar
(13) 18°E, 18°N Yayo (17) 13°E, 47°N Mauer (21) 37°E, 4°S Olduvai
(14) 7°W, 34°N Rabat (18) 27°E, 27°S Swartkrans (22) 36°E, 7°N Omo
Map these fossil locations on Map 1. Use the number associated with each fossil. Try to
map these with two different colors. Australopithecines one color, H. erectus another.
GEOS170C: Homework #8 Name:____________________
“Hominid Evolution and Migration” 20 points
Page 2
Map 1

15°W
30°W
45°W
90°W 60°W
105°W 75°W
120°W
135°W
150°W
165°W
180°
15°E
30°E
45°E
60°E
105°E 75°E
120°E
135°E
150°E
165°E
15°N
30°N
45°N
60°N
75°N
15°S
30°S
45°S

60°S
75°S
GEOS170C: Homework #8 Name:____________________
“Hominid Evolution and Migration” 20 points
Page 3
Problem Set 2: Hominid Fossil Data
The data below includes four kinds of information:
Fossil taxon and its age range in millions of years ago
Location in degrees east or west longitude and north or south latitude, and the name of
site where the fossil was found
Homo neanderthalensis (.13 -.03 mya) Fossils #23–34
(23) 36°E, 33°N Amud (31) 11°E, 47°N Steinheim (39) 36°E, 35°N Tabun
(24) 110°E, 7°S Solo (32) 7°E, 52°N Neanderthal (40) 30°S, 24°E Florisbad
(25) 8°E, 32°S Saldanha (33) 34°E, 45°N Kiik-Koba (41) 138°E, 34°S Lake
Mungo
(26) 27°E, 14°S Broken Hill (34) 5°W, 32°N Jebel- Irhoud (42) 115°E, 1°N Niah
(27) 68°E, 41°N Teshik-Tash (35) 38°E, 50°N Sungir (43) 112°E, 38°N
Zhoukoudian
(28) 5°W, 35°N Gibraltar (36) 3°E, 43°N Lascaux (44) 137°E, 38°N
(29) 44°E, 36°N Shanidar (37) 18°E, 48°N Predmost (45) 99°W, 19°N Tepexpan
(30) 2°W, 52°N
Swanscombe
(38) 70°E, 62°N
Early modern Homo sapiens (.1 – .02 mya) Fossils #46-56
(46) 75°W, 2°N Punin (50) 108°E, 27°N (54) 88°W, 32°N Natchez
(47) 120°W, 44°N Marmes (51) 32°E, 27°S Border
Cave
(55) 102°W, 32°N Midland
(48) 100°E, 54°N (52) 35°E, 32°N Jebel
Qafzeh
(56) 81°W, 27°N Vero
Beach
(49) 70°E, 23°N (53) 44°W, 18°S Lagoa
Santo
Map these fossil locations on Map 2. Use the number associated with each fossil. Use the
number associated with each fossil. Try to map these with two different colors. H.
neanderthalensis one color, H. sapiens another.
GEOS170C: Homework #8 Name:____________________
“Hominid Evolution and Migration” 20 points
Page 4
Map 2

15°W
30°W
45°W
90°W 60°W
105°W 75°W
120°W
135°W
150°W
165°W
180°
15°E
30°E
45°E
60°E
105°E 75°E
120°E
135°E
150°E
165°E
15°N
30°N
45°N
60°N
75°N
15°S
30°S
45°S

60°S
75°S
GEOS170C: Homework #8 Name:____________________
“Anthropocene” 20 points
Page 5
Hominid Migration Discussion Questions
1. How many thousands of years ago is .3 million years? Or .02 million years?
2.Why have scientists concluded that Africa is the “birthplace” of humanity?
6. Early modern Homo sapiens were the first hominids to enter into which
continent(s)? Choose one and infer a possible path of migration.
7. Where is the greatest coexistence between Neanderthals and early modern
Homo sapiens likely to have occurred? Explain how this may have contributed to
the extinction of Neanderthals.
8. Describe the overall migration pattern of humans and prehuman ancestors
based on the data that you plotted on the map.
Homework #5
6
Problem Set 3: Geologic Time Scale Boundaries?
1. How are the geologic boundaries determined? What is required for a new
boundary to be accepted?
Problem Set 4: Anthropocene Epoch?
2. Do you think the evidence supports a creating the Anthropocene Epoch?
3. What are two lines of evidence used to support the Anthropocene epoch?
GEOS170C: Homework #8 Name:____________________
“Anthropocene” 20 points
Page 7
Problem Set 5: Anthropocene Epoch Start dates
Event Date Geographical extent
Primary
stratigraphic
marker
Potential GSSP date* Potential auxiliary
stratotypes
Megafauna
extinction
50,000–
10,000 yr B
P
Near-global Fossil megafauna None, diachronous over
~40,000 yr
Charcoal in lacustrine
deposits
Extensive
farming
~8,000 yr B
P to
present
Eurasian event, global
impact
CO2 inflection in
glacier ice
None, inflection too
diffuse
Fossil crop pollen,
phytoliths, charcoal,
ceramic minerals
New–Old
World
collision
1492–1800 Eurasian–Americas event,
global impact
Low point of CO2
in glacier ice 1610 CO2 minima
Fossil pollen, phytoliths,
charcoal, CH4,
speleothem δ18O,
tephra†
Industrial
Revolution
1760 to
present
Northwest Europe event,
local impact, becoming
global
Fly ash from coal
burning
~1900 (ref. 94);
diachronous over
~200 yr
14N:15N ratio and diatom
composition in lake
sediments
Nuclear
weapon
detonation
1945 to
present Local events, global impact Radionuclides (14C)
in tree-rings 1964 14C peak§
240Pu: 239Pu ratio,
compounds from cement,
plastic, lead and other
metals
Persistent
industrial
chemicals
~1950 to
present Local events, global impact For example, SF6
peak in glacier ice
Peaks often very recent
so difficult to accurately
date§
Compounds from
cement, plastic, lead and
other metals
Using the events in the above table to rank them as potential start dates for the Anthropocene Epoch. 1
being the best and 6 be the least favorable. Remember; it should have global impact, happen more or less at
the same time over the globe and be easily identifiable. Include what is it about these events that
makes them a potential event to time the beginning of the Anthropocene (global coverage, easy
to identify or date, etc.).
GEOS170C: Homework #8 Name:____________________
“Anthropocene” 20 points
Page 8
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