- The Predictable Level: Maturity Level 4
Process Areas at the Predictable Level focus on exploiting the knowledge and experience of the workforce framework developed at Maturity Level 3 to improve performance and achieve pre- dictable outcomes. The competency-based processes used by different workforce competencies are interwoven to create integrated, multidisciplinary processes. Workgroups are empowered to manage their own work processes and conduct some of their internal workforce activities. The artifacts produced through the performance of competency-based processes are captured and de- veloped for reuse. Individuals and workgroups quantitatively manage the competency-based proc- esses that are important for achieving their performance objectives. The organization manages the capability of its workforce and of the competency-based processes they perform. The effect of workforce practices on these capabilities is evaluated and corrective actions taken if necessary.
Mentors use infrastructure provided by the organization’s workforce competencies to assist indi- viduals and workgroups in developing their capability. The process areas at Maturity Level 4 in- clude:
- Competency-Based Assets
A process area at Maturity Level 4: Predictable
The purpose of Competency-Based Assets is to capture the knowledge, experience, and artifacts developed in performing competency-based processes for use in enhancing capability and per- formance.
A competency-based asset captures the knowledge, experience, or artifacts developed in perform- ing competency-based processes within an organization. A competency-based asset is a bundle of information or an artifact that has been prepared in standard format and made available for wide- spread use. As an organizational asset, it becomes a component of one or more workforce compe- tencies. The concept of a workforce competency is expanded at the Predictable Level to include not just the knowledge, skills, and process abilities of individuals and workgroups, but also the accumulated assets that can be reused by other members of their competency community. Thus, competency-based assets include many of the concepts discussed in areas such as knowledge management, learning organizations, or reusable product components. The representation of com- petency-based assets for future deployment is determined by standards set by the organization or within a specific workforce competency.
At lower maturity levels, competency-based knowledge is typically shared by person-to-person communication, interactions within a community of competence, training, or searching through unstructured historical records or repositories. Competency-Based Assets builds on these practices by encouraging individuals and workgroups to capture, formalize, and share the information and artifacts they develop while performing competency-based processes. Thus, Competency-Based Assets supports the transfer of knowledge and experience across communities of competence.
Selected bundles of information or artifacts, chosen for their ability to enhance performance, are organized into competency-based assets. Investments in competency-based assets are expected to produce a return by improving performance or other defined business benefits. These compe- tency-based assets are integrated into competency-based processes for use in performing business activities. Information on the use of these assets is also captured. Competency-based assets are incorporated into competency development activities, and mentoring activities are structured to deploy them. Competency-based assets are made available for use through information and com- munication technology. Workforce practices and activities are adjusted to encourage the devel- opment and use of competency-based assets.
Goal 1 The knowledge, experience, and artifacts resulting from performing com- petency-based processes are developed into competency-based assets.
Goal 2 Competency-based assets are deployed and used.
Goal 3 Workforce practices and activities encourage and support the develop- ment and use of competency-based assets.
Goal 4 Competency-Based Assets practices are institutionalized to ensure they are performed as defined organizational processes.
Commitment to Perform
Commitment 1 The organization’s stated values encourage knowledge sharing between individuals and workgroups, when appropriate.
Refer to Commitment 1 of the Communication and Coordination process area for information regarding the establishment and communication of organizational values and the types of the workforce issues that might be covered in the organization’s stated values. Also refer to Commit- ment 1 of the Participatory Culture process area for information regarding extending these core values to address open communication and participation in decision making by individuals and workgroups.
Commitment 2 The organization establishes and maintains a documented policy for de- veloping and using competency-based assets.
Issues typically addressed in the policy include:
- Competency-Based Assets activities, including capturing and exploiting the competency- based assets of the organization, serve its business objectives and stated
- Knowledge, experience, and artifacts gained from performing competency-based processes are captured and retained for
- Competency-based knowledge, experience, and artifacts are incorporated into competency development and business
- Workforce practices are adjusted to motivate capturing and exploiting competency-based knowledge, experience, and
- Appropriate professionals are involved, as needed, in ensuring that activities involved in cap- turing and exploiting the organization’s competency-based assets comply with any contracts or similar agreements with other organizations regarding any of these
- Workforce practices and activities relating to the development and use of competency-based assets comply with relevant laws, regulations, and organizational
Human resources or other appropriate professionals are consulted to ensure that the activities in- volved in capturing and exploiting the organization’s competency-based assets comply with rele- vant laws, regulations, and organizational policies.
Commitment 3 An organizational role(s) is assigned responsibility for coordinating across the organization the activities involved in capturing and reusing compe- tency-based assets.
Examples of individuals who might coordinate various Competency-Based Assets activities in- clude the following:
- Operational managers and executives
- Knowledge officers or managers
- Quality, efficiency, or performance experts
- Human resources or other appropriate professionals
- Training or development groups
- Competency ownership groups
- Information technology specialists
- Measurement or process improvement groups
Ability to Perform
Ability 1 Within each unit, an individual(s) is assigned responsibility and authority for ensuring that members of the unit participate in capturing and using competency-based assets, as appropriate.
Examples of responsibilities to be performed within units include the following:
- Ensuring that knowledge, experience, and artifacts are captured from performing compe- tency-based or interdisciplinary processes
- Competency-based assets are used in performing the unit’s business activities
- Workforce activities within the unit motivate the capture and exploitation of competency- based assets
Ability 2 A responsible individual(s) coordinates the activities for capturing and us- ing competency-based assets within each workforce competency.
Ability 3 Adequate resources are provided for capturing and using competency- based assets.
- The organization’s workforce competencies have been
Refer to the Competency Analysis process area for the information regarding defining workforce competencies.
- The competency development plans for the organization’s workforce competencies are made available.
Refer to Practices 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the Workforce Planning process area for information regarding establishing and maintaining the organization’s competency development plans.
- Experienced individuals with appropriate expertise are available to advise and assist in cap- turing, representing, retaining, and exploiting competency-based knowledge, experience, and artifacts.
Examples of individuals with appropriate expertise include the following:
- Subject matter experts
- Knowledge management professionals
- Professionals with expertise in the structure and components of the organization’s products or services
- Mentors or coaches
- Adequate resources are provided for capturing and exploiting competency-based assets, in- cluding resources such as:
- the technology needed for capturing or exploiting competency-based assets, including information technology for storing, processing, or presenting the organization’s compe-
tency-based assets and communication technology for generating or sharing the organi- zation’s competency-based assets;
- search and presentation technology for using the organization’s competency-based assets in competency development and the performance of business activities;
- tools and methods for incorporating the organization’s competency-based assets into its business activities; and
- training needed to exploit the organization’s competency-based
- Adequate funding is available for capturing and exploiting competency-based
- Adequate time is made available for capturing and exploiting competency-based assets, in- cluding:
- the effort of those whose knowledge, experience, or artifacts are being captured, and
- the effort of those who facilitate the capture and exploitation of competency-based knowledge, experience, or
Ability 4 Those responsible for various tasks involved in developing and deploying the organization’s competency-based assets develop the knowledge, skills, and process abilities needed to perform their responsibilities.
Learning opportunities are provided in techniques for capturing and reusing the organization’s competency-based assets that include topics such as:
- capturing competency-based assets,
- representing and packaging competency-based assets for reuse,
- disseminating competency-based assets,
- assisting individuals and workgroups in sharing competency-based assets,
- storing and retrieving competency-based assets,
- building repositories of competency-based assets,
- integrating competency-based assets into competency-based processes, and
- developing and exploiting the organization’s intellectual
Ability 5 Individuals involved in capturing or using competency-based assets de- velop the knowledge, skills, and process abilities needed to perform their responsibilities.
- Individuals and workgroups are prepared in methods for capturing knowledge, experience, and artifacts that result from performing competency-based or integrated multidisciplinary processes.
- Individuals and workgroups are prepared in methods for sharing the knowledge, experience, and artifacts that result from performing competency-based or integrated multidisciplinary processes with others who might benefit from
- Individuals and workgroups are prepared in methods for using competency-based assets in performing their business
Ability 6 The practices and procedures for capturing or using competency-based assets are defined and documented.
- Practices and procedures are defined and documented at the organizational or unit levels, as appropriate.
- Guidelines for tailoring the practices and procedures for use in different circumstances are documented and made available, as
- The individual(s) assigned responsibility for coordinating Competency-Based Assets activi- ties across the organization ensures that defined practices and procedures are:
- maintained under version control,
- disseminated through appropriate media,
- interpreted appropriately for different situations, and
- updated through orderly
- Experiences, lessons learned, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing Competency-Based Assets practices are captured to support the future use and improvement of the organization’s
Practice 1 Individuals and workgroups capture and retain information and artifacts that emerge from performing competency-based processes.
- Competency-based processes are augmented with tasks for capturing information and arti- facts developed while performing business
Refer to Practice 8 of the Competency Development process area for practices that encourage the capture of competency-based experience and information. At the Defined Level, the capture of this experience and information is less formal and may not be included in the definition of compe- tency-based processes. However, at the Predictable Level, the capture of competency-based in- formation and artifacts is formalized and becomes an ordinary part of the competency-based proc- esses.
Examples of tasks that can be augmented for capturing information and artifacts include the fol- lowing:
- Postmortem reviews and analyses of projects
- Phase-end reviews
- Lessons learned sessions
- Opportunities for improvement sessions
- Process improvement or quality circle meetings
- Shift or workgroup handoffs
- Progress reporting mechanisms
- Information that can contribute to the knowledge, skills, or process abilities of workforce competencies is captured and
At the end of tasks, assignments, phases, projects, or other discrete units of work, individuals and workgroups expend effort in capturing information learned through experience that may be useful in performing future business activities. Refer to Practice 15 of the Workgroup Development process area for practices relating to the capture of workgroup assets when workgroups are dis- banded.
Some of this information is quantitative. Refer to the Quantitative Performance Management process area for practices involving the establishment and use of process measures. Examples of qualitative information that might be captured include the following:
- Unexpected events or results
- Variation in results under different conditions
- Factors that affect processes or their results
- Improvements in methods or processes
- Means for reducing variation in process or result
- Relationships between parameters such as effort, schedule, cost, and quality
- Opportunities for innovation in product or process
- Rationale for decisions and their outcomes
- Customer habits or preferences
- Artifacts developed while performing competency-based processes are
Artifacts are retained in repositories appropriate to the type of competency-based processes that produced them. Examples of artifacts that might be retained include the following:
- Design documents
- Templates for designing solutions
- Documentation of products or internal systems
- Process descriptions
- Audit reports, lessons learned, or postmortem reports
- Test results
- Minutes and other records from meetings
Practice 2 Communication vehicles are established to support the sharing of compe- tency-based information and artifacts within and among competency com- munities.
Not all information and artifacts developed through performing competency-based processes are selected for treatment as a competency-based asset. Nevertheless, some information or artifacts may be valuable to others in a competency community. Individuals and workgroups are encour- aged to capture and share information and artifacts informally when they believe others could benefit. In this case, the organization provides communications vehicles, but remains passive with regard to how information and artifacts are represented and shared. As a result, these information and artifacts are a local, rather than an organizational, asset. When a bundle of information or an artifact experiences widespread use, it becomes an organizational asset. Informal usage patterns may provide valuable guidance in setting strategies and selection standards for developing organ- izational competency-based assets.
Examples of communication vehicles to support sharing include the following:
- Electronic bulletin boards
- Lessons learned repositories
- Knowledge management systems
- Periodic meetings or forums
- Mentoring or coaching
- Communication between members of a competency community
Practice 3 A strategy for developing and deploying competency-based assets is cre- ated for each affected workforce competency.
- The organization identifies the workforce competencies where the capture, development, and use of competency-based assets are determined to have sufficient business
Strategies for developing competency-based assets are generally specific to each workforce com- petency, but may incorporate elements related to programs, product lines, or the entire organiza- tion. Creating competency-based assets for some workforce competencies may not be judged to have sufficient business benefit to justify inclusion in the strategy. Thus, the strategies and result- ing activities may target selected workforce competencies to achieve specific business benefits.
Examples of business benefits to be achieved through the development of competency-based as- sets include:
- Improved performance of individuals, workgroups, or business units
- Enhanced development of individuals or workgroups
- Improvements to competency-based processes through their coupling with relevant compe- tency-based assets
- Value to customers
- Contribution to the asset value of the organization
- For each affected workforce competency, a strategy for competency-based assets is estab- lished and
Examples of issues to be covered in the strategy for competency-based assets within each affected workforce competency include the following:
- Identification of the business objectives addressed through developing competency-based assets
- How the creation of competency-based assets within this workforce competency serves or- ganizational objectives
- Identification of the mechanisms for acquiring source material for competency-based assets
- Guidelines and criteria for selecting information and artifacts to be incorporated into compe- tency-based assets
- Methods for developing competency-based assets
- Organization-level or workforce competency-level standards to which competency-based assets must comply
- Methods for deploying competency-based assets
- Plans for incorporating competency-based assets into competency development activities
- Approaches for using competency communities for development and deployment of compe- tency-based assets
- How workforce practices are adjusted to motivate contribution to, and use of, competency- based assets
- Within each workforce competency, guidelines and criteria are established for deciding which bundles of information and artifacts are sufficiently valuable to be developed into competency-based
Competency-based assets are products typically developed for users internal to the organization. Occasionally, external users may have access to competency-based assets. Since these assets are expected to produce value for the organization, they are developed with process standards similar to those used for developing products provided to customers. Quality and other standards may differ from those applied to external products or services since they must be adjusted to be appro- priate for internal use.
Examples of guidelines and criteria for selecting competency-based assets to be developed in- clude the following:
- a knowledge management strategy
- enhanced ability to achieve business objectives or competitive advantage
- value for increasing the knowledge, skill, or process abilities of others in the competency community
- ability to improve the performance of individuals or workgroups within the competency community
- ability to reuse assets in future business activities
- ability to reduce effort or increase quality
- value to members of the organization outside the competency community
- Standards for representing competency-based assets are established at either the workforce competency level or at the organizational
Standards for representing competency-based assets include the following:
- Standards for terminology and use
- Requirements for completeness, correctness, and other quality attributes
- Semantic structure and organization
- Representation of content
- Format for storage and presentation
- Archiving and access methods
- Methods and processes are defined for:
- capturing competency-based assets,
- sharing competency-based assets, and
- using competency-based
- The strategy, guidelines, and standards for selecting and developing competency-based as- sets are communicated to each competency
- Responsibilities are assigned for acquiring, developing, deploying, and maintaining compe- tency-based
Practice 4 Selected components of competency-based information and artifacts are organized into competency-based assets and made available for use.
- Information and artifacts produced within a competency community are selected according to appropriate standards and criteria for incorporation into competency-based
- Responsible individuals or workgroups transform information and artifacts into competency- based assets using appropriate methods and complying with relevant
- Competency-based assets are made available for
Refer to Practice 7 of the Competency Development process area for information regarding com- munication vehicles within a competency community.
Examples of mechanisms for deploying competency-based assets for use include the following:
- Intranets and other electronic media
- Asset repositories containing text, graphics, video, audio, or other forms of information
- Remote communication access methods
- Best practices networks
- Competency development materials
- Integration into competency-based processes
- Integration into product development or service delivery technology
- Version control is established for competency-based
Examples of issues to be addressed in establishing version control include the following:
- Identification of assets to be placed under version control
- Methods for logging problems or defects in the assets
- Change control procedures
- Mechanisms for releasing assets
- Mechanisms for tracking or auditing the status of an asset
- Mechanisms for maintaining multiple versions of an asset for different uses
- When competency-based information and artifacts are developed into competency-based assets, actions are taken to ensure they are consistent with workforce competency descrip- tions.
Practice 5 Competency-based assets are updated to reflect periodic revisions in the knowledge, skills, and process abilities constituting workforce competencies.
- Actions are taken to ensure competency-based assets are consistent with definitions of the knowledge, skills, and process abilities constituting workforce competencies:
- Competency-based assets are periodically reviewed to ensure they are consistent with workforce competency
- When revisions are made to workforce competency descriptions, related competency- based assets are revised as necessary to maintain
- Information and artifacts captured from performing competency-based processes are re- viewed to discover if they indicate needed revisions to workforce competency descrip- tions.
- When appropriate, competency-based assets are incorporated into continuing revisions of workforce
Refer to Practices 4 and 5 of the Competency Analysis process area for information regarding updating workforce competency descriptions and competency-based processes. Refer also to Practice 12 of the Competency Integration process area for information regarding updating inte- grated competency-based processes.
- Competency-based assets are periodically reviewed for currency and are modified or re- moved when
- When appropriate, competency communities are involved in the process of maintaining and validating for use competency-based assets relevant to their workforce
Practice 6 Competency-based assets are integrated into competency-based processes and related technologies, as appropriate.
Examples of incorporating competency-based assets into competency-based processes and related technologies include the following:
- Revisions to processes based on knowledge of more innovative or efficient practices
- Use of new artifacts (e.g., decision aids, templates for planning or design, reusable product components, trouble-shooting guides, customized service guides) for performing compe- tency-based processes
- Automatic production or coordination of artifacts in the process flow for development or service delivery
- Immediate access to knowledge or information relevant to the performance of a competency- based or integrated competency-based process
- Those responsible for developing and deploying competency-based assets evaluate the defi- nition of competency-based processes to identify adjustments that will support incorporating these assets into standard work practices and business
- Workforce competency descriptions are revised to incorporate competency-based assets. These revisions may include:
- revisions of competency-based processes based on knowledge embodied in the asset or required for using the asset, or
- descriptions of the knowledge and skills embodied in the assets or required for using the assets.
- Technologies are adjusted to deploy competency-based assets. These adjustments may in- clude:
- electronically accessible repositories of competency-based assets,
- search tools for finding relevant competency-based assets,
- presentation media for displaying competency-based assets through means appropriate to the their most effective timing and use,
- communication technology for deploying competency-based assets remotely, and
- security mechanisms to ensure the protection and appropriate use of the organization’s competency-based
- The incorporation of competency-based assets into competency-based processes is commu- nicated to the competency communities
Practice 7 Individuals and workgroups use competency-based assets in performing their business activities.
- Individuals and workgroups receive preparation to incorporate competency-based assets into their performance of competency-based
- Individuals and workgroups plan (or replan) their committed work to incorporate compe- tency-based assets where
- Assistance or mentoring is available to individuals or workgroups using competency-based assets.
Practice 8 Information resulting from the use of competency-based assets is captured and made available.
- Information is captured on the use of competency-based
Examples of information on the use of competency-based assets include the following:
- How the asset was used and any tailoring needed to accommodate its use
- New information learned or developed through using the asset
- Extensions or new assets developed through use of the asset
- Effort, cost, schedule, or other resource needs experienced from using the asset
- Knowledge, skills, or process abilities gained through using the asset
- Performance results achieved using the asset
- Problems experienced in using the asset
- Improvements needed to better utilize the asset
- Information on experiences using competency-based assets is organized and made available for use.
Information on experiences using competency-based assets can be incorporated into repositories, intranets, or other vehicles through which competency-based assets are accessed. Examples of how this information can be used include the following:
- Guidelines for using the asset effectively
- Sources of assistance or mentoring in using the asset
- Accuracy of information contained in the asset
- Evaluations of the appropriateness of an asset in different situations
- Expectations about the benefits or results to be gained from using an asset
- Methods for enhancing or expanding an asset
- Limitations of an asset
- Information characterizing the use of competency-based assets is used in revising or expand- ing these
Practice 9 Competency development activities incorporate competency-based assets.
- Programs of training and development in each of the organization’s workforce competencies incorporate competency-based assets in the learning opportunities offered to individuals and workgroups.
- Some learning activities are explicitly designed to impart the information contained in com- petency-based
- Competency-based assets are tailored as necessary to become effective components of the organization’s competency development plans and
Practice 10 Mentoring or coaching activities are organized to deploy competency-based assets.
The basis for mentoring using competency-based assets at the Predictable Level is in making use of the process assets created in Practices 4 and 9 to support mentoring or coaching activities.
Mentoring or coaching activities are organized to deploy competency-based assets. Thus, mentor- ing becomes a formal means of transferring a defined content of the knowledge, skills, and proc- ess abilities, typically contained in competency-based assets, to individuals and groups throughout the organization as an advanced form of competency development. Mentoring practices are more fully described in the Mentoring process area.
- Within each workforce competency for which mentoring is appropriate, a mentoring process is defined to a level sufficient to ensure that those being mentored develop the appropriate level of
Refer to the Mentoring process area for components of a mentoring process. At the Defined Level, mentors and those they mentor are allowed to develop these relationships according to what they believe would be most effective. However, at the Predictable Level, the process is made sufficiently formal to ensure that mentors are consistent in the capabilities imparted to those being mentored.
- Mentors receive preparation for imparting the documented knowledge, skills, and process abilities using a defined mentoring
- Mentoring practices and activities are periodically reviewed to identify needed improve- ments or opportunities for better exploiting competency-based
Practice 11 Workforce practices and activities encourage and support the development and use of competency-based assets.
- Where appropriate, decisions concerning staffing and work assignments are adjusted to identify individuals with the greatest potential for contributing to and using compe- tency-based
- Performance management practices and activities are adjusted to consider the contribution to, and use of, competency-based
- Performance objectives at both the unit and individual levels include contribution to, and use of, competency-based
- Ongoing discussions of work performance include feedback on an individual or work- group’s contribution to, or use of, competency-based
- Each individual or workgroup’s performance is assessed, in part, against contribution to, or use of, competency-based
- Individuals and workgroups are recognized or rewarded for outstanding contribution to, or use of, competency-based
- The work environment is adjusted, as appropriate, to encourage or support the contribution to, or use of, competency-based
Practice 12 Compensation practices and activities are defined and performed to moti- vate the development and use of competency-based assets.
- The compensation system is adjusted, as needed, to motivate the development and use of competency-based
- Guidance and assistance for factoring the development and use of competency-based assets into compensation decisions is provided to individuals responsible for compensation deci- sions.
- The basis on which the development and use of competency-based assets are factored into compensation decisions is discussed with each
- Individual compensation decisions affected by the development and use of competency- based assets are reviewed to ensure they maintain equity in the compensation
- The compensation system is periodically reviewed and adjusted to improve its influence on the development and use of competency-based
Measurement and Analysis
Measurement 1 Measurements are made and used to determine the status and performance of activities for contributing to and using competency-based assets.
Examples of measurements include the following:
- The rate and type of competency-based assets being captured
- Progress in packaging knowledge, experience, and artifacts into forms fit for dissemination and reuse
- The rate at which competency-based assets are disseminated through different sources
- The rate at which different repositories of competency-based assets grow and are accessed
- The rate at which competency-based assets are accessed
- The rate at which competency-based assets are incorporated into competency-based proc- esses
- The number of times each competency-based asset has been used
Measurement 2 Measurements are made and used to determine the effectiveness of compe- tency-based assets on improving competencies and performance.
Examples of measurements of the effectiveness of competency-based assets include the follow- ing:
- Their effect on improving the rate of developing workforce competencies at the individual, workgroup, or organizational levels
- Improved performance results at the individual, workgroup, unit, or organizational levels
- Improved performance capability at the individual, workgroup, unit, or organizational levels
- Increased motivation or retention
- Return on investments in competency-based assets because of improved performance results or other defined business benefits
- Increased value of business assets
Verification 1 A responsible individual(s) verifies that the organization’s activities for devel- oping and using competency-based assets are conducted according to the organization’s documented policies, practices, procedures, and, where ap- propriate, plans; and addresses noncompliance.
These reviews verify that:
- The capture and use of competency-based assets comply with the organization’s policies and stated
- The capture and use of competency-based assets comply with relevant laws and
- Competency-Based Assets activities are performed according to the organization’s docu- mented practices and
- Noncompliance issues are handled
Verification 2 Executive management periodically reviews the Competency-Based Assets activities, status, and results; and resolves issues.
These reviews verify:
- The appropriateness of activities for capturing and using competency-based assets at the or- ganizational and unit
- Progress in capturing and using competency-based
- Results from reviews of Competency-Based Assets practices and
Refer to Verification 1 for information regarding reviews of Competency-Based Assets activities to ensure adherence to the following:
- Relevant laws and regulations
- Organizational policies, practices, and procedures
- Status of resolution of noncompliance
- Trends related to capturing and using competency-based
- The organization’s effectiveness in capturing and using competency-based
Verification 3 The definition and use of competency-based assets measures and informa- tion are periodically audited for compliance with organizational policies.
Organizational policies which may apply could include human resource, human capital, informa- tion security, confidentiality, privacy, or data disclosure policies.
- Definitions of competency-based assets measures and information are reviewed for compli- ance with organizational
The data definitions define what data is to be collected, aggregated, and used. They are not the data values themselves. For example, reuse measures for competency-based assets could be a component of a data definition, but number of accesses per month or rate of growth in accesses per category would be specific data values for instances of reuse measures for competency-based assets.
- Periodic audits ensure that competency-based assets measures and information are accessed and used in accordance with organizational
These audits may be accomplished through reviews of ongoing reporting, such as system access and use monitoring reports, and auditing to ensure compliance with relevant information security standards and organizational policies.
System access and use monitoring ensures that the data are accessed only by authorized individu- als, while compliance auditing ensures that these individuals perform appropriate procedures in compliance with organizational policies and standards.