ENG 295 Dr. Mark A. Tabone 1 Memo: Ethics in Technical Writing:

ENG 295 Dr. Mark A. Tabone 1 Memo: Ethics in Technical Writing: SummaryRecommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Memo: Ethics in Technical Writing: SummaryRecommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Memo: Ethics in Technical Writing: SummaryRecommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Ethics in Technical Writing: SummaryRecommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Ethics in Technical Writing:

Summary

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph

Recommendations Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph about a given article should state and emphasize that article’s key topics, themes, and points. The summary should delve more deeply into important details, and should relate directly to the overall main point(s) of each article. The summary section should comprise approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of the document. ENG 295 Dr. Mark A. Tabone 2 3. An analysis/response section analogous to the conclusions/recommendations section of a memo, executive summary, or short, “informal” report, this section should synthesize and analyze the “factual” information reported in the summary section in order to draw a small set of discrete conclusions about the claims the articles’ authors are making. The conclusion(s) should reflect what you consider the most important or interesting information in the summary. The section should then offer an argumentative response to these conclusions. What, for instance, is the role or importance, if any, of ethics in workplace communication? What approach to ethics do you recommend for individual communicators, or for workplaces as a whole? Your response may be to agree or disagree with one or more of the authors’ claims and expand on this opinion; you may agree with them for the most part but assert a different particular claim; or you can adopt a contrarian point of view and reject the need for ethical considerations in your technical communication entirely as long as you are able to support your claim that the authors’ arguments are unconvincing. Whatever your position, make sure you situate it within the discussion the authors, and we, are having, and support it with reasoning and evidence. There are many tenable positions. There are no “wrong” positions in argumentative writing; there are numerous positions with weak, ill-informed, unsubstantiated, or fallacious support. If you need a formatting guide, consult the textbook’s sections on “informal reports” and “recommendation reports.” For formatting, consult the sample memo on page 126. During the composition process, be sure to think about the following: Purpose and Audience  What are the primary and secondary purposes of your document?  Who is the primary (intended) audience?  Who else will, or might, read it?  Who, besides the readers, might be affected by this document even if they do not read it?  What does the audience need to understand and act? Make a list before writing.  Where/When/Why will they read this document?  How might you best present your information for your primary and secondary audiences? Respect their time and needs.  What information and rhetorical tactics might your audience find most persuasive, and what do they need to make a good decision? Tone  What tone is required for this audience, context, and rhetorical situation?  What tone is demanded by this subject matter? ENG 295 Dr. Mark A. Tabone 3  Does your use of technical terminology need to be explained (i.e., is your language appropriate for your readers? Would more detail help the reader to understand your document? If not, can you revise or cut any extraneous explanation?). You might list the technical terms you think will need to be explained so that you define all terms or provide all necessary background. Format  What elements belong in each section?  What are all of the formatting elements specifically necessary for memos?  What is the best strategy for “chunking” and organizing this text for readability and emphasis? Keep in mind that it will be read on screen rather than in print. EXAMPLE ELEMENTS FOR EVALUATION Format  Is genre-appropriate both textually and visually  Uses visual rhetoric for clarity and readability  Follows pertinent instructions  Follows A-B-C, C-C-C, or other appropriate structure; each section contains appropriate information  Is “chunked” effectively and as appropriate Organization  Sequences content according to a self-evident logical pattern  Segments discrete topics into discrete textual units (paragraphs, sections, etc.)  Reflects needs and conventions of the rhetorical situation (“good news,” “bad news,” “sales,” etc.)  Locates important information in “places of emphasis”  Uses visual cues, if appropriate, to call attention to organization Content  Meets demands of rhetorical situation  Uses effective, appropriate persuasive strategies  Is audience-centered; anticipates and answers questions  Backs claims with credible evidence, cited appropriately  Provides all information needed to understand and act Style  Is clear, concise, and correct Uses and varies diction successfully for effect  Favor active sentences and avoids nominalizations  Employs appropriate discourse conventions and levels of formality Tone  Assumes a tone appropriate to its audience, purpose, and context  Is emotionally intelligent and strategic  Demonstrates goodwill Cohesion & Coherence  Creates coherence through sound, valid reasoning, organization and sequencing, and the signaling of these elements for the reader with “signpost” language ENG 295 Dr. Mark A. Tabone 4  Is unified and focused throughout  Is direct and unambiguous in its statements (if culturally appropriate)  Has unified paragraphs with clear topic sentences  Creates clear connections among ideas with transitions and internal self-references Professionalism  Creates a positive image of the author and his/her organization  Is clean, polished, and visually appealing  Is on time or ahead of time  Represents a clear attempt to exceed expectations  Is 100% free of mechanical errors

Recommendations

Turn in a hard copy, and upload another copy to Blackboard. First, read the following articles. For this assignment to be successful, it will be necessary to read these texts closely, and to understand them thoroughly:  Markel’s “Toward a Sense of Ethics for Technical Communication”  Katz’s “The Ethic of Expediency” Then, write an “informal report” based on these articles. Format this report as a memo. Introduce and summarize each article. In response to the articles, make and support a concise but thoughtful argument about the role of ethics in workplace communication. Assume that your audience is comprised of people who know nothing about the articles and very little about the issues they address. This will require you to swiftly provide background information and context or the reader before providing a concise, accurate, accessible summary of some fairly technical content. The memo should be at least one full, single-spaced page in length (with standard 1” margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, etc.), and it must contain three parts: 1. An abstract: this should provide a brief summary of the entire memo’s contents, much like the abstracts that are written for academic articles. Like the abstract portion of a business document, it should also clearly and quickly state the document’s purpose, as well as its ultimate point. This includes indicating up front any conclusions about the memo draws. 2. A body that thoroughly and accurately summarizes each article, capturing each text’s main ideas and arguments. The summaries should not quote the articles; they should instead condense and paraphrase their ideas in your own words with as much precision as possible. The first sentence of the first paragraph about a given article should state and emphasize that article’s key topics, themes, and points. The summary should delve more deeply into important details, and should relate directly to the overall main point(s) of each article. The summary section should comprise approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of the document. ENG 295 Dr. Mark A. Tabone 2 3. An analysis/response section analogous to the conclusions/recommendations section of a memo, executive summary, or short, “informal” report, this section should synthesize and analyze the “factual” information reported in the summary section in order to draw a small set of discrete conclusions about the claims the articles’ authors are making. The conclusion(s) should reflect what you consider the most important or interesting information in the summary. The section should then offer an argumentative response to these conclusions. What, for instance, is the role or importance, if any, of ethics in workplace communication? What approach to ethics do you recommend for individual communicators, or for workplaces as a whole? Your response may be to agree or disagree with one or more of the authors’ claims and expand on this opinion; you may agree with them for the most part but assert a different particular claim; or you can adopt a contrarian point of view and reject the need for ethical considerations in your technical communication entirely as long as you are able to support your claim that the authors’ arguments are unconvincing. Whatever your position, make sure you situate it within the discussion the authors, and we, are having, and support it with reasoning and evidence. There are many tenable positions. There are no “wrong” positions in argumentative writing; there are numerous positions with weak, ill-informed, unsubstantiated, or fallacious support. If you need a formatting guide, consult the textbook’s sections on “informal reports” and “recommendation reports.” For formatting, consult the sample memo on page 126. During the composition process, be sure to think about the following: Purpose and Audience  What are the primary and secondary purposes of your document?  Who is the primary (intended) audience?  Who else will, or might, read it?  Who, besides the readers, might be affected by this document even if they do not read it?  What does the audience need to understand and act? Make a list before writing.  Where/When/Why will they read this document?  How might you best present your information for your primary and secondary audiences? Respect their time and needs.  What information and rhetorical tactics might your audience find most persuasive, and what do they need to make a good decision? Tone  What tone is required for this audience, context, and rhetorical situation?  What tone is demanded by this subject matter? ENG 295 Dr. Mark A. Tabone 3  Does your use of technical terminology need to be explained (i.e., is your language appropriate for your readers? Would more detail help the reader to understand your document? If not, can you revise or cut any extraneous explanation?). You might list the technical terms you think will need to be explained so that you define all terms or provide all necessary background. Format  What elements belong in each section?  What are all of the formatting elements specifically necessary for memos?  What is the best strategy for “chunking” and organizing this text for readability and emphasis? Keep in mind that it will be read on screen rather than in print. EXAMPLE ELEMENTS FOR EVALUATION Format  Is genre-appropriate both textually and visually  Uses visual rhetoric for clarity and readability  Follows pertinent instructions  Follows A-B-C, C-C-C, or other appropriate structure; each section contains appropriate information  Is “chunked” effectively and as appropriate Organization  Sequences content according to a self-evident logical pattern  Segments discrete topics into discrete textual units (paragraphs, sections, etc.)  Reflects needs and conventions of the rhetorical situation (“good news,” “bad news,” “sales,” etc.)  Locates important information in “places of emphasis”  Uses visual cues, if appropriate, to call attention to organization Content  Meets demands of rhetorical situation  Uses effective, appropriate persuasive strategies  Is audience-centered; anticipates and answers questions  Backs claims with credible evidence, cited appropriately  Provides all information needed to understand and act Style  Is clear, concise, and correct Uses and varies diction successfully for effect  Favor active sentences and avoids nominalizations  Employs appropriate discourse conventions and levels of formality Tone  Assumes a tone appropriate to its audience, purpose, and context  Is emotionally intelligent and strategic  Demonstrates goodwill Cohesion & Coherence  Creates coherence through sound, valid reasoning, organization and sequencing, and the signaling of these elements for the reader with “signpost” language ENG 295 Dr. Mark A. Tabone 4  Is unified and focused throughout  Is direct and unambiguous in its statements (if culturally appropriate)  Has unified paragraphs with clear topic sentences  Creates clear connections among ideas with transitions and internal self-references Professionalism  Creates a positive image of the author and his/her organization  Is clean, polished, and visually appealing  Is on time or ahead of time  Represents a clear attempt to exceed expectations  Is 100% free of mechanical errors

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